Baku is the big scientific-cultural and industry center of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The abundance of natural resources in the area of the Absheron Peninsula has brought prosperity to the whole region. Since the end of the 19th century, the City of Baku has been the centre of onshore oil development.

Absheron and Baku feature major transport lines: The International Airport named after Heydar Aliev, a big port in the Baku Bay (the biggest on the whole Caspian Sea), the Baku Railway station and highways connecting the capital with the rest of the country. Major oil and gas pipelines also originate on the peninsula.